“Beer is proof that God loves us and wants us to be happy” – Benjamin Franklin
A person may gulp a can of beer in two minutes but it can take twenty years for a brewer to brew a good beer! Beer can be considered as a combination of science and art. It’s like an emotion, one should feel it while drinking. A good beer will make you experience each and every sensation that can be experienced by your palate and savor every moment as it makes its way down your throat.
Main Ingredients In Beer
The art of beer making has been known from ancient times. The 4 key ingredients in beer used for brewing are water, a starch source such as malted barley, yeast for fermentation and a flavoring such as hops. There are two types of barley used for beer making, the two-row barley, and the six-row barley. Adjuncts are used to improve beer’s color and flavor/aroma. Common adjuncts used are unmalted barley, wheat, rice, or corn, sometimes sugar sources are also used as adjuncts.
Hope are important as it gives characteristic flavor to the beer. Hops are a female plant of Humulus lupulus. Bitter and aroma imparting hops are used for brewing. They both differ in essential oil and alpha acid contents. Bitter hops are rich in alpha acid while aroma hops are rich in essential oils and vice-versa. Clarifying agents such as isinglass, Irish moss (a seaweed), kappa carrageenan, and gelatin are used for making beer bright and clear instead of cloudy. Yeast metabolizes the sugars extracted from grains, which produces alcohol and carbon dioxide, and thereby turns wort into beer. Top-fermenting Saccharomyces cerevisiae is used for beer manufacturing.
Types Of Yeasts Used For Beer Making
- Ale yeast – They can ferment at a higher temperature and form more esters
- Lager – They ferment at lower temperature and produce more crispy taste.
- Wild yeast – they impart more acidic taste to the beer
Beer Brewing Process
- Malting – Raw barley is heated and dried with the crushing of the grain. The aim of malting is to isolate the enzymes needed for brewing. The barley grains are then passed through grist mills to form grits.
- Mashing – In this process, grits/milled malt is introduced into hot water and left to activate the natural enzymes that help to break down starch into sugar. There are 2 ways of mashing namely infusion mashing (grains are heated in one vessel) and decoction mashing(a little portion is heated and then introduced back into the original vessel).
- Lautering – The grits are separated from the water. The sugar-water saturate is drained off from grains. The sticky liquid is called wort.
- Boiling – The wort is boiled, and then hops and adjuncts are added into the wort. Boiling time lasts for 60-120 min.
- Fermentation – Boiled, strained and cooled wort is transferred to the fermentation vessel and yeast is added. Yeast helps to convert wort sugar into alcohol releasing carbon dioxide during the process.
- Bottling and aging – After fermentation beer need to mature in order to develop flavor and for carbonation effect. The beer is kept for aging from few months to few years followed by bottling and is then ready for commercial use.
Quantitative Parameters for Beer
Brewers considers these parameters to ensure the perfect beer brewing process.
5.Alcohol Content :
Indian beer bands with alcohol content(% by volume)
|Sr. No.||Brand||Alcohol content|
|4||Kalyani Black Label||7.8|
6.Specific gravity: The Original Gravity (OG), which is taken just before pitching your yeast and after the wort has chilled. Make sure you make any temperature adjustments to it before recording it.
The Final Gravity (FG), which is taken just before packaging and before you add any priming sugar. Again, make sure you have adjusted for temperature if necessary.
Calculate Alcohol By Volume(ABV) using specific gravity, Using this equation:
So, if you have a beer that has an original gravity of 1.050 and final gravity of 1.05, this formula will give you the following:
= 132.715 (.045)
This is the most practical way for the typical home brewer to estimate their ABV. It’s quick and relatively simple and can be done with a pocket calculator or by hand in a pinch.