Livestock sector is one of the most important components of agriculture in India. The value of the output from livestock and fisheries sectors together stood at about Rs. 148,954 crores (US $ 31,000 Million) during 1998-99 (Rs. 123,076 crores, equivalent to US $ 28,000 Million, for Livestock sector and US $ 59,00 Million for fisheries), which accounts for 27 per cent of the value of the output of Rs. 553,175 crores (US $ 115,300 Millions) from total Agriculture and the allied fields. (Planning Commission, 2001).
Meat production is estimated at 4.9 million tones, standing eighth in rank in the world’s meat production. Buffalo in India contributes about 30% of total meat production. The contribution by cattle, sheep, goats and poultry is 30%, 5%, 10%, 10.2% and 11.5%, respectively.
The majority of the waste, in the meat industry, is produced during slaughtering. Slaughterhouse waste consists of the portion of a slaughtered animal that cannot be sold as meat or used in meat products. Such waste includes bones, tendons, skin, the contents of the gastrointestinal tract, blood and internal organs.
The various meat byproducts from the industry are:-
Utilisation of Blood
Animal blood has a high level of protein and heme iron and is an important edible by-product. In Europe, animal blood has long been used to make blood sausages, blood pudding, biscuits and bread. In Asia, it is used in blood curd, blood cake and blood pudding. It is also used for non-food items such as fertiliser, feedstuffs and binders.
Blood plasma is used in food as an emulsifier, a stabiliser, a clarifier, a colour additive, and as a nutritional component. Most blood is used in livestock feed in the form of blood meal. It is used as a protein supplement, a milk substitute, a lysine supplement or a vitamin stabiliser, and is an excellent source of most of the trace minerals. Blood plasma also has an excellent foaming capacity (Del et al. 2008), and can be used to replace egg whites in the baking industry.
Medical and pharmaceutical uses
It is used as a nutrient for tissue culture media, as a necessary ingredient in blood agar, and as peptones for microbial use. Glycerophosphates, albumins, globulins, sphingomyelins, and catalase are also used for the biological assay. Many blood components such as fibrinogen, fibrinolysin, serotonin, immunoglobulins and plasminogen are isolated for chemical or medical uses.
Hides and skins
The products from the hides of cattle and pigs, and from sheep pelts, are leather shoes and bags, rawhide, athletic equipment, reformed sausage casing and cosmetic products, sausage skins, edible gelatine and glue.
Gelatin is produced by the controlled hydrolysis of a water-insoluble collagen derived from protein. It is made from fresh raw materials (hides or bone) that are in an edible condition. Gelatin is added to a wide range of foods, as well as forming a major ingredient in jellies and aspic. Its main use is the production of jellied desserts, because of its “melt in the mouth” properties, but is also added to a range of meat products, in particular to meat pies. Gelatin is also widely used as a stabiliser for ice cream and other frozen desserts. High-bloom gelatin is added as a protective colloid to ice cream, yoghurt and cream pies. The gelatin is thought to inhibit the formation of ice crystals and the recrystallization of lactose during storage.
UTILIZATION OF EDIBLE TALLOW AND LARD
Lard is the fat rendered from the clean tissues of healthy pigs. Tallow is hard fat rendered from the fatty tissues of cattle or sheep. Lard and edible tallow are obtained by dry or wet rendering. Traditionally, tallow and lard were used for deep frying.
Food technologist and nature lover
Connect To Her: