How Is Wine Made – Wine Production Flow Chart

By | March 23, 2018

A very elegant bottle from which a blood red coloured liquid pours out. The grace with which he, the waiter, pours this outstanding and a very expensive liquid is just awesome. Both the parties sitting on the opposite ends of the table raise their glasses. But they are no ordinary glasses, but very curvaceous and aesthetic to look. They bring the glasses together and just bring them so close that they both touch each other and a ‘cling’ is heard.
Just ready to take a gulp of this very expensive liquid but, to my surprise- the glass touches their lips. But they sip just to as if you want to put a person alive when he was on the verge of dying. The gracefulness with which this is being served, drunk and poured is just awesome. Want to explore them,so lets see How Is Wine Made.

How Is Wine Made

How Is Wine Made | Discoverfoodtech.com

What is Wine?

Wine is the fermented, filtered and aged or not aged product of grape juice. It can also be made from other fruits like apple, kiwi, apricot, plum, pear, dates and even some flower like the rhododendron from which the Rhodo wine is made. It can be regarded as a food. Not from the nutritional point of view but from the prospect of its consumption. Wine, has today become an integral part of the table. Especially, in countries like USA, France and Italy it is always there with the food as if a condiment like ketchup, mayonnaise is served with the food

Origin of Wine

The process of wine making is called vinification. The oldest winery of world is dated to be 4100 B.C. which is located outside the Armenian village. The wine Areni which is made from flowers which are called Areni is still made by them. It is believed that the Caucasus Mountains and the Zagros Mountains is where today’s wine originated. This has been verified by the discovery of an ancient winery site in Armenia. Moreover, grape residues were found in clay pots which were discovered from a site in Georgia. These mountain ranges span from Armenia through Azerbaijan, Georgia, northern Iran, south-eastern Anatolia, and eastern Turkey. And signs have been found throughout this range with grape domestication in eastern Turkey.

The Shulaveri-Shomu community holds the credit for producing the wine for the first time. They were a group of stone age. They used obsidian for tools and raised and domesticated animals.

When It Was Used For First Time?

For the first time wine was commercially produced by the Hudson Bay Co.. They planted the first vines in the WA estate in Fort Vancouver in 1825. Dr. Walter Clore regarded as the father of Washington wine made contributions in making the wine. They produced 53% White Wine and 47% Red Wine.

Discovery of Wine

There have been various versions about who invented the wine and how did it come into being what we see today. According to some stories the princess of Persia tried to die by consuming a jar of spoilt grapes. But by after consuming she didn’t died but felt much better and happier. This new behaviour of the princess was appraised by the king and he demanded for the same thing again. In Greek mythology it is believed that Dionysus, son of Zeus and his mistress Semele, invented wine while living in the ancient Mount Nysa which are associated to Ethiopia, Libya and Tribliya.

What does a Wine Contain?

A bottle of wine approximately contains approximately 2.2 pounds of grapes or 520 grapes. With each bottle of wine whether red or white you take in 750 calories which has a 12.5-13.5 ABV. On an average a bottle of wine serves 5 glasses of 5 oz hence with each glass you take in 150 calories. The chemical composition of wine has acids (tartaric acid, malic acid, lactic acid, citric acid, succinic acid, acetic acid), anthocyanins, water, alcohol and sugar minerals (nitrogen, magnesium, iron, phosphorous, potassium, sulphide, calcium). Usually the sweet fortified wines have the most calories and alcohol content with 1450 calories and 21% respectively.

Types of Wine

1.Red Wine

2.White Wine

3.Desert Wine

4.Rose Wine

5.Sparkling Wine

How is Wine Made | Wine Production Process

  1. Selection of Grapes: Wine grapes generally grow between 30-50 degree latitude. These grapes are either collected during the day or at night by manual shearing or through machinery. After collecting in bins, they are transported to crushing machines. There the process of turning grapes into juice and wine begins.
  2. Crush the grapes: The destemmer and press, are used to gradually press the grapes. These wines making machines execute exactly what their name implies. Destemmer removes the stems and twigs from the clusters. While the press lightly crushes the grapes.

    How Wine Is Made Flow Chart | Discoverfoodtech.com

  3. Fermentation of grapes into wine: Fermentation is the process where the sugar is converted into alcohol. Some winemakers even use yeast nutrients to bolster the fermentation. The red colour to red wine is imparted by the skin of the grapes which is put in fermentation with the grape juice. Red grapes can make a white wine it is just the skin of the grapes which gives the colour.
  4. Age the wine: Winemakers depend upon this very crucial step for the much-needed flavours and aromas. The wine can be aged for as long as a winemaker wishes to. The barrels which are used are usually made of oak and they are caramelised by toasting. Flavours depend upon the oak type, oak barrels and preference of toasted barrel.

How to Taste a Wine | Wine Tasting

The wine tasting works on 5S’s which means:

How Is Wine Made

How To Taste Wine | Discoverfoodtech.com

 

Facets that Explain Wine Flavour’s

  1. Acidity: The taste of wine is tart. And the pH of wine ranges from 2.5 to 4.5. From a taste of a lemon to Greek yoghurt.
  2. Sweetness: The sweetness of the wine depends upon the type of grapes. And also on the type of wine. The term “dry” refers to a wine without sweetness.
  3. Alcohol: The taste of alcohol is spicy, palate-coating and warms the back of your throat. Wine’s average range of alcohol is about 10% ABV (alcohol by volume) to 15% ABV.
  4. Wine Blends: The taste of wine depends upon the blends of wine meaning al the wines which have been used to make this wine. Blending is a traditional method of winemaking. Wines are blended after they have fermented and there is specific alcohol concentration present in it. A famous example of a field blend is Port wine.
  5. Aroma Compounds: Phenols, esters, higher alcohols and acids are regarded as the aroma compounds. Each grape variety exhibits aroma compounds at different levels. Which is the reason that some smell like berries and others smell like flowers. Moreover, one of the major contributing factor to wine’s aromas is aging. The barrels which are used for the ageing of wine are often made from the oak tree. Oxidation and aging produce a range of unique flavours in wine including.

For the enhancement of flavours usually a process is carried out with barrels called ‘toasting’ and due to which flavours are imparted to barrels like Vanillin(C8H8O3), aldehydes etc. which stay in the barrels for around 3-4 years.

Fortified Wine

Fortified wines are those to which a distilled beverage has been added like grape brandy. The spirits help in increasing the shelf life of the wine, by reducing oxidation. They also create microbial stability by decreasing the pH and creating unfavourable environment for them. The fortified wines originated from Europe and the most famous of them are the Portuguese Port Wine, Spain-sherry wines, France- vins doux naturels and vins de liqueur.

How Is Wine Made Video

 

References:

http://winefolly.com/review/what-is-wine/

http://winefolly.com/tutorial/how-to-read-a-wine-label/

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Winemaking

https://wine.lovetoknow.com/wiki/Who_Invented_Wine

https://wine.lovetoknow.com/wiki/Greek_Wine

http://winefolly.com/review/where-did-wine-come-from/

https://www.wineinmoderation.eu/en/content/History-Tradition-of-Wine.4/

http://extension.wsu.edu/yakima/wp-content/uploads/sites/40/2016/02/Wino-101-basics.pdf

https://www.nytimes.com/2017/03/06/dining/wine-is-food.html

http://healthyliving.natureloc.com/%EF%BB%BFwhat-is-wine-how-is-wine-made-how-to-taste-wine/