Icecream (derived from iced cream or cream ice) is a sweetened frozen food which is typically eaten as a dessert.It is usually made from dairy products such as milk and cream, combined with fruits and nuts, flavourants, stabilizer, emulsifiers, colorants.The mixture is stirred to incorporate air and cooled below the freezing point of water to prevent the formation of ice crystals. Without air, ice cream becomes heavy and soggy.So lets see How Is Ice Cream Made.
A wide variety of ingredients are allowed in ice cream but there should be a minimum amount of milk fat, milk solids and air as defined by Standards of identity in U.S Code of Federal Regulations(CFR).Icecream must contain at least 10% Milkfat,20% milk solids.Icecream is of different types depending upon the amount of fat present in it.It may be of reduced fat( 25% less fat than reference ice cream), light(50% less fat than reference), low-fat (less than 3g fat per serving) or nonfat(less than 0.5g per serving).Both artificial and natural sweeteners can be used as a sweetening agent.Besides providing characteristic sweetness to icecreams, they also tend to lower down the freezing point of the mix so that some amount of water remains unfrozen while serving.
Ancient Greeks, Romans, and Jews were known to chill wines and juices which further evolved into fruit ices, frozen milk, and cream mixtures.In the first century, Emperor nano sent messengers to mountains to collect snow so that concoction flavored with fruit and honey could be made. Twelve centuries later, Marco Polo introduced Europe to a frozen milk dessert which was much similar to modern sherbet.The Italians were much fond of frozen confection which by sixteenth century was called as ICE CREAM. The first public sale of ice cream occurred in Paris in 1670.
Structure Of Ice cream | Components Of Ice cream
- SERUM-It contains dissolved sugars and salts as well as any aqueous phase proteins and stabilizers.It is the serum which forms lamella between the other structures such as ice, air, fat globules, micelles etc.
- ICE CRYSTALS-Since icecream is a frozen dessert hence ice crystals become an integral component of ice cream.The ice crystals should be sufficiently small to provide a smooth mouthfeel.The amount and size of ice crystals affect numerous attributes of the finished product, from scoopability and hardness to cooling effect and meltdown rates.
- AIR CELLS-More than half of the volume of ice cream is air which provides light texture to it.The average size of air cells lies in the range of 20-25 micrometer.
- FAT GLOBULES AND CLUSTERS-The average size of emulsion droplets is about 0.8 micrometer.After freezing, fat globule clusters are formed as a result of partial coalescence of individual globules.The average size of clusters ranges between 70-80 micrometer.Fat globule clusters are one of the most important parameters that determine shape retention properties and meltdown rates.
- PROTEIN/STABILISER STRUCTURE-Various stabilizers (proteins and gums) used in ice creams take on structure and orientation depending upon nature of molecule with the other components of ice cream, some may become weak gel other may be dissolved in the liquid phase.Interactions between dairy proteins and stabilizers greatly affect icecream characteristics.
Air In Ice Cream
Air forms one of the most important ingredients in ice cream.Usually, air makes up 30-50% volume of ice cream.The amount of air that is added in ice cream is called overrun.If the volume of ice cream is doubled by adding air then overrun is 100% which is the maximum allowed air in icecreams.If the amount of air in ice cream is more, then it would melt faster than ice cream with less air.Less expensive icecreams generally contain more air.
Approximate Composition Of Ice Cream (Percentage By Weight)-
|CONSTITUENT||DAIRY ICE CREAM|
|Nonfat milk solids||11|
|Edible energy(KJ/100 ML)||390|
*Overrun means relative increase in volume by air beaten in.
Ice Cream Manufacturing Process | How Is Ice Cream Made
- Blend the ice cream mixture
- Pasteurize mix
- Cooling and ripening
- Addition of liquid flavors and colorants.
- Addition of fruits, nuts and bulky flavorings ( candy pieces etc.)
How Is Ice Cream Made | The Production Process With Complete Explanation
- Blend the ice cream mixture-The milk fat, milk solids, stabilizers, emulsifiers are blended together for uniform mixing of dry ingredients with liquid for 6-8 minutes.
- Pasteurize mix-The ultimate aim of pasteurization is to kill the pathogenic microorganisms and to prevent spoilage.Moreover, the lipase enzymes present in the mix also need to be deactivated because it may also be present at low temperatures.Additives added after homogenization are pasteurized separately.Pasteurization is usually done at 80 degree Celsius for around 25 seconds.Since the viscosity of ice cream mix is greater than liquid milk, therefore the conditions used for the pasteurization of ice cream mix is higher than liquid milk.
- Homogenization-Ice cream mix is homogenized (2500-3000 psi) to break down the large fat globules into a smaller one so as to form a better emulsion.Homogenization is especially meant to give ice cream fine and smoother texture.
- Cooling and Ripening-The ice cream mix are cooled rapidly within the range of 32-40 Fahrenheit before freezing so that the milk fat globules get partially crystallize before entering into the freezer, moreover, it gives protein stabilizers time to hydrate.This improves whipping properties of the mix.Some added emulsifiers need considerable time at low temperature to displace protein from fat globules.The process of holding the ice cream mix prior to freezing is called aging which might last for up to 24 hours.The physical changes that occur during aging are beneficial to its freezing properties.
- Addition of liquid flavors and colors- Only the ingredients that are liquid can be added before freezing to make sure that mix flows properly through freezing equipment.The flavor intensity imparted by flavors should be delicate but definite, pleasing but not overpowering.Combination of flavors can also be added depending upon the requirement and consumer acceptance.
- Freezing-This process involves freezing the mix and incorporation of air.Icecream mix can be frozen either in the bath or continuous freezers.The continuous freezing process is much faster than batch process.The freezing process and incorporation of air should happen simultaneously.If the bulk of the water is frozen after that any beating of air becomes impossible and freezing after air is beaten will lead to the insufficient churning of fat globules and can damage foam structure.
- Addition of fruits, nuts and bulky flavorings ( candy pieces etc.)- fruits, nuts and bulky flavourants are added at this point.These ingredients could not be added before freezing because they would interfere with the smooth flow of ice cream mix.Moreover, the addition of these bulky ingredients after freezing prevents the damage to the large pieces or chunks.
- Packaging-The cartons are filled with the premeasured amount of ice cream at the rate of 70-90 cartons per hour.The machine places the lid on each carton and pushes them into the conveyor belt.The cartons then pass under ink jet that sprays paint expiration date and production code onto each carton.The packaging of ice cream is a complicated process especially if icecreams of certain shapes are required.
- Hardening-It is an important process which helps the icecreams to retain their shapes and provide a certain required shelf life with respect to chemical and enzymatic reactions.The packaged ice cream is passed to hardening tunnel in which very cold air below – 25-degree celsius is passed for 20 minutes.Rapid cooling of icecream promotes quick freezing of water to create small ice crystals.Storage of ice cream at -25 degree Celsius helps to stabilize ice crystals and thus maintain its quality.
Ice Cream Flavors
There is number of ice cream flavors and the dynamic list will never get completed because of the rising and changing demands of costumes.Here are some of the most favourite flavours of ice cream of customers-
- Tutti Frutti
- Mango ice cream
- French vanilla
- Cotton candy
- Raspberry ripple
Ice Cream Brands | How Is Ice Cream Made
Some of the most famous icecream brands are:-
- Kwality wall’s
- Baskin Robbins
- Mother dairy
How Is Ice Cream Made Video