The fruit & vegetable processing industries generated 10-60% waste or by-products in both solid and liquid form. Waste from fruits & vegetables can be used as such or after some treatments. They are rich in nutrients, therefore, have many health benefits. In addition to its use for livestock feed, Fruits & vegetable waste can be converted into value-added products like essential oils, edible oil, polyphenols, enzymes, pigments, anti-carcinogenic compounds, single cell proteins, bio-degradable films etc. Let’s see in detail about this Fruits and Vegetables Byproducts.
What are the byproducts?
A large number of by-products are produced from food industries. These are the secondary products generated during manufacturing of primary products. This includes peels, seeds, leaves, residual pulp, stems, stones, and discarded pieces from a variety of sources. These by-products are the good source of bioactive compounds, nutraceuticals, and other functional foods. Therefore, there is a healthy trend towards by-product utilization and value addition.
Why it has to be utilized?
As fruits & vegetables are perishable, their wastes get rotten quickly. So, waste disposal is a serious problem as it causes flies & rats around. Therefore, waste needs to be utilized properly and efficiently. Reducing waste and using it for by-products a have a good impact on climate. By-products from food industries are rich in nutrients so have many health benefits. By-product utilization gives another source of income to industries, so it helps to increase economic productivity.
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Following is the list of Fruits and Vegetables Byproducts explained briefly.
Fruits and Vegetables Byproducts
By-products obtained from orange pulp and peel after juice extraction is the cheap and abundant source of dietary fiber. Dietary fiber powder can be prepared from this. After proper washing, it is dried at a temperature below 650C for 12 hrs. Care should be taken that functional properties and polyphenols, tannins, anthocyanin like compounds remain unchanged. After drying it is ground to a particle size of 500-600µm. This powder can be used for value addition in various food products.
There is a large amount of potato peel is generated as potato is mostly consumed vegetable worldwide. Potato peel is rich in fibers. Fibers play an important role in human health and help in the prevention of diseases. To prepare potato peel fibers, potato peels are washed with water and dried in an oven at 600C for 12 hrs. After it is milled to a particle size of 500µm and sieved. It should be stored under refrigeration.
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It is produced during the carrot juice extraction process. This solid waste is a rich source of carotenoids, fibers and phenolics compounds. After processing, it can be used in making carrot based condensed milk. The powder can be prepared by vacuum drying and it can be used as a good fiber source in many bakeries and other food products.
4.Green pea peels
Peels obtained from green peas are generally thrown away but they can be utilized efficiently. Peels are rich in dietary fibers. The powder can be prepared by drying in an oven at 600C for 12 hrs, grinding and sieving through a 500-600µm sieve. Many value-added products can be prepared from this. It is the potential source for the cellulose production.
The residue left after the extraction of apple juice is called pomace. In apple juice industry near about 25% is the by-product which is pomace. Generally, it is thrown away and causes environmental pollution. But it can be converted into edible products as pomace is a rich source of pectin, carbohydrates, fibers, and minerals. Dried apple pomace can be used as energy source in a broiler. Food products like apple pomace jam, sauce, papad can be prepared and also have application in confectionery industries.
Banana waste includes peels, rhizomes, leaves, damaged bananas, young stalks, and pseudostems. They are most commonly used to feed livestock but the value-added products can be prepared. The pith of pseudostem, peels can be low cost and a good source of starch, pectin, cellulose which can be used as thickening agent, stabilizers etc. banana inflorescence bracts can be used for natural bio-colorant and flavor purposes.
7.Citrus fruit waste
Most of all citrus by-products are generally used as animal fodder. Citroflavonoids, carotenoids, aromatic compounds, dietary fiber can be obtained from citrus peels. Citrus waste can be used as a clouding agent in citrus beverages. Cellulose can be extracted from citrus waste and utilized as a thickening agent. It possesses high antioxidant activity also.
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8.Mango fruit waste
By-products from mango are peel and kernel. Mango seed kernel has low protein content but it is high in essential amino acids. Furthermore, it is also a good source of polyphenols, phytosterols, and tocopherols. Mango seed could be used as natural antioxidants, antimicrobial compounds as a functional ingredient. The oil from mango seed kernel is very useful; it contains 44-48% saturated fatty acids and 52-56% unsaturated. Mango stone can be used as an adsorbent.
Different types of waste like stem, seeds, lees, pomace generated during winemaking process from grapes. Grape pomace is fibrous material and because of its carbohydrate content, it is used in different fermentation processes. Lees can be used as a substrate for microbial activities. Grape stem extract prepared in acetone have a high level of antioxidant and polyphenols.
Baby corn cob is the only edible part and other parts like corn silk (Corn hairs) the by-products. Corn silk is a rich source of ash, protein, and dietary fibers. It is useful in treating urinary infection and cystitis. In addition, the powder obtained from it is rich in antioxidants and therefore can be used for value addition also.
In conclusion, there is a need and high demand for the utilization of waste or by-products generated during food processing. This will help in sustaining renewable resources, will provide additional income to farmers and manufacturers and healthy diet for consumers.